Over the years, mainly because the population of other countries in the Nile basin has increased and these countries have developed the capacity to harvest the waters of the Nile more efficiently for national development, differences have arisen over the fact that Egypt has insisted that the water rights acquired by the 1929 and 1959 agreements (collectively called The Nile Water Agreements) , and that no construction projects are being carried out on the Nile. River or one of its tributaries without prior permission from Cairo. Indeed, several Egyptian leaders have threatened to go to war to protect these “acquired rights”. Upstream riparian countries such as Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia have argued that they are not bound by these agreements because they were never left. Indeed, shortly after Britain`s independence in 1961, the new leader of Tanganjia, Julius Nyerere (now Tanzania, after unification with Zanzibar in 1964), argued that the Nile water agreements had shown leniency to his country and other countries upstream of Egypt, forcing them to submit their national development plans to control and monitor Cairo. , and that such an approach to public policy was not compatible with the country`s status as a sovereign state. Since then, all upstream riparian countries have spoken out in favour of a new, more inclusive regulatory framework for the management of the Nile Basin.  The countries bordering the Nile are Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan (Republic), Tanzania and Uganda. Egypt, Sudan and South Sudan are downstream border countries. However, South Sudan has stated that it does not recognize the 1959 bilateral agreement between Egypt and Sudan. These differences on the use of the Nile are not new and indeed have a long history, as these countries are heavily dependent on the waters of the Nile. In 1929, an agreement was reached between Egypt and Great Britain on the use of Nile waters – Britain represented its colonies in the Nile basin.